This problem set is all about encryption, which is the masking of information to make it unreadable without special knowledge (the key). The process of encryption has been around for hundreds of years, but recently, with the prevalence of computers, encryption has become ever more common and important. One main purpose of encryption is to be able to share information with other trusted people without the fear of disclosure.
The particular algorithm used for encryption and also decryption is called a cipher. The original information is called plaintext, and after it is encrypted, it is known as ciphertext. Though the cipher text contains all the required information, it is unreadable to any human or computer without the cipher. The cipher depends on a key, which is the process that actually encrypts the information.
In this problem set, we will use a very simple cipher, which is the famous Caesar…
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